Purpose: improving the reader's power of reasoning. Criticism of German logic. Distinction between weak and unsound arguments. Necessary and probable reasoning. Probable reasoning as either inductive or retroductive. The three orders of induction are quantitative, qualitative and crude (simple enumeration). Qualitative induction mistaken for retroduction. Brief comments on the history of astronomy. CSP regards Kepler's investigation of the motions of the planets as the greatest feat of inductive reasoning ever accomplished. Fallibilism and the propositions of mathematics, logic, and ethics fallibilism and common sense.
Argument, history of, Common sense (see also Critical commonsensism), Ethics, Fallibilism, German logicians and the idea of logic, Induction, crude Induction, qualitative Induction, quantitative Induction, Kepler Johannes, Logic (modal see Modality), Logic and fallibilism (see also Logica docens), motions of Planets, Probability and Chance, Reasoning (probable see also Probability), necessary Reasoning, Retroductions (see also Abduction)
pp. 1-27, 16-19